Hot autumn in the coldest region in the world

Meteorologists said that although September 2, in the northern hemisphere, was the beginning of autumn, it was devoid of the mild, pleasant weather that characterizes this season from the rest of the year.

Experts who spoke to “Sky News Arabia” predicted that it would be difficult this year to touch cold temperatures.

Greenhouse gas concentrations, global sea levels and ocean heat content reached record levels in 2021, according to the 32nd annual State of the Climate Report, which provides the most comprehensive update of Earth’s climate indicators, and is published by the American Meteorological Society.

Climate change

The report’s data revealed that there is compelling scientific evidence of the risks of climate change, says Rick Spinrad, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

He added, “With many societies exposed to 1,000-year floods, exceptional droughts and historical heat this year, the threat of the climate crisis is not only a future threat, but must be addressed today and build nations ready to adapt to its difficult repercussions.”

For his part, Paul Higgins, associate executive director of the American Meteorological Society, said: “The newly released International State of the Climate Report 2021 (AMS) provides scientific insights into the current climate system and its impact on people.”

The results of the report included that greenhouse gases on Earth on September 2, the first day of autumn in the northern hemisphere, are the highest ever.

The main concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, rose again to new record levels during 2021.

The annual global average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was 414.7 parts per million, which is 2.3 parts per million greater than in 2020, the highest measurement in recent observational records as well as the highest in at least the last million years, based on paleoclimate records. .

Earth temperature

The report adds that the Earth’s temperature continues to rise, and a set of scientific analyzes indicate that annual surface temperatures of the Earth were 0.38-0.50 degrees Fahrenheit (0.21-0.28 degrees Celsius) above the 1991-2020 average, and this places 2021 among the six warmest years Since records began in the mid to late 19th century, it shows that the past seven years (2015-2021) have been the warmest on record.

The average surface temperature of the Earth has increased at a rate (0.08-0.09 degrees Celsius) per decade since record-keeping began and more than doubled since 1981 (0.18-0.20 degrees Celsius) per decade since 1981, according to a set of scientific analyzes included in the report.

Ocean Heat

The American report warns that the ocean temperature and global sea level today are the highest ever due to greenhouse gases and other factors, and global ocean temperatures continued to rise to a depth of more than 6000 feet, setting new records in 2021.

For the tenth year in a row, the global average sea level rose to a new record level of about 3.8 inches, which is higher than the average of 1993, the year that marked the beginning of the satellite record of sea level measurements.

Record numbers

For many years, the Arctic has generally been cooler, but some records have been set, says the International Climate Report:

There were 97 tropical storms during storm seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres last year, well above the 1991-2020 average of 87.
Seven tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensities on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

The North Atlantic hurricane basin recorded 21 storms, with Category 4 Hurricane Ida the most influential storm in the Atlantic Ocean, with Ida losses amounting to $75 billion.
Ida was the most costly disaster in the United States in 2021 and the fifth costliest hurricane since 1980, while Super Typhoon Ray was the third largest in Philippine history, causing nearly $1 billion in damages and more than 400 deaths.

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